Black hole is a place in space where gravity pulls so much that even light cannot get out. The ring surrounds the black hole’s ‘event horizon’, is the boundary beyond which nothing, not even light, can escape its gravitational grip. The gravity is so strong because matter has been squeezed into a tiny space. This can happen when a star is dying. Stars in the whole Universe have different sizes and masses which will be the deciding factor for their end state after using up all of their fuels in the core. Everything about a star’s life depends on its mass, including how it dies and the type of end product it becomes. A star similar in mass to our Sun will end with a whimper, but it will produce a beautiful sight on the journey. A star about 10 times our Sun’s mass or more will end its life much more violently in an explosion called a supernova and depending on the leftover core’s mass, it can even collapse into one of nature’s most mysterious objects that we called as black hole.Generally speaking, when we are referring to black holes, we are actually referring to the remnants of dead stars that are very massive thus, allowing them to turn into black holes.Confirmation for the existence of black holes was in 1974. Scientists detected a heavy dose of radio waves emitted from the center of the Milky Way, about 26,000 light-years away. They eventually concluded that there must be a black hole there. Today, we call this mysterious black hole as Sagittarius A. Scientists from all over the globe are still doing research on it to uncover its secrets. It is said that the Milky Way’s central black hole, Sagittarius A weighs about 4 million times the mass of the sun. Even though black holes are black and even pull light into it, scientists manage to detect its presence due to the strong gravity that affects the stars and gas around it. In other words, it is possible for scientists to detect black holes in our universe through some sort of modern technologies which help them to detect signals from different type of wavelengths other than visible light. It is also possibly detected via detailed observation of its affect and significant influence on the nearby stars around it.
From the image above, we can see there are many parts forming the black hole. Three most significant part of this gigantic object are Singularity, Outer Event Horizon and Inner Event Horizon. The Singularity is which the gravity is the strongest. It is the center of a black hole. Like any other stars, it also has an inner and outer layer part covering up the Singularity. The Outer Event Horizon is the very outer layer. You would still be able to escape from a black hole’s gravity within this layer because its gravity is not as strong as the middle or center layer. But if you happen to be traveled there by any means, you are likely going to die anyway. The Inner Event Horizon is its middle layer. This layer’s gravity is much stronger than the outer layer. Escaping it is not a possibility and death is certain if you ever caught within this layer’s gravity. Eventually It would drag you toward the center of a black hole where the gravity is the strongest and you will be experiencing what scientists called a phenomenon known as spaghettification. Even though it sounds like your daily favorite meal, I can confirm you that you will never want to experience that, ever.
One of the most popular theoretical physicists, Stephen William Hawking argued that the Big Bang theory of the creation of the Universe was essentially the reverse of a black hole.In essence, he was saying that 15 billion years ago, all the matter in our Universe was squeezed into a black hole then eventually exploded in the Big Bang, forming galaxies, stars and planets. Anyhow, he was not certain whether our Universe would one day collapse back into another black hole then create another Big Bang and produce a new Universe.But if that did happen, he said, it would not be for at least 20 billion years. Today onward, we are still learning about this mysterious black hole through satellites, telescopes and spacecrafts as it holds the fundamentals that need to be discovered in getting a more depth understanding and a better knowledge of our Universe.
Written by : Afiq Adli
Internship Student UM, 2019